* F. J. Tipler, "The structure of the world from pure numbers", *Reports on Progress in Physics*, Vol. 68, No. 4 (Apr. 2005), pp. 897-964, https://web.archive.org/web/20070329220356/http://math.tulane.edu/~tipler/theoryofeverything.pdf . Also released as "Feynman-Weinberg Quantum Gravity and the Extended Standard Model as a Theory of Everything", arXiv:0704.3276, Apr. 24, 2007, https://arxiv.org/abs/0704.3276 .

* Frank J. Tipler, "Intelligent life in cosmology", *International Journal of Astrobiology*, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Apr. 2003), pp. 141-148, https://webcitation.org/6ZgOg8nug . Also at arXiv:0704.0058, Mar. 31, 2007, https://arxiv.org/abs/0704.0058 .

* Frank Tipler, "The Omega Point and Christianity", *Gamma*, Vol. 10, No. 2 (Apr. 2003), pp. 14-23, https://webcitation.org/6ZgPWx0VD .

* Frank J. Tipler, "From 2100 to the End of Time", Tipler's Tulane University website, 2001, https://webcitation.org/6avlac1pl , https://web.archive.org/web/20090506125346/http://math.tulane.edu/~tipler/wired.html .

----------

Astrophysical black holes (i.e., trapped surfaces) exist, but Hawking [1, 2] and Wald [3] have shown that if black holes are allowed to exist for unlimited proper time, then they will completely evaporate, and a fundamental quantum law called "unitarity" will be violated. Unitarity, which roughly says that probability must be conserved, thus requires that the universe must cease to exist after finite proper time, which implies that the universe is closed and has the spatial topology of a 3-sphere [4]. The Second Law of Thermodynamics says the amount of entropy--the amount of complexity--in the universe cannot decrease, but Ellis and Coule [5] and Tipler [6] have shown that the amount of entropy already in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) will eventually contradict the Bekenstein Bound near the final singularity unless there are no event horizons, since in the presence of horizons the Bekenstein Bound states the universal entropy *S* is less than or equal that constant (i.e., the Bekenstein Bound) times the radius of the universe squared, and general relativity requires the radius of the universe to go to zero at the final singularity. If there are no horizons then the gravitational shear energy due to the collapse of the universe itself will increase to infinity much faster than the radius of the universe going to zero at the final singularity [6, 7]. The absence of event horizons by definition means that the universe's future c-boundary (causal boundary) is a single point [8], call it the *Omega Point*. MacCallum [9] has shown that a 3-sphere closed universe with a single point future c-boundary is of measure zero in initial data space (i.e., infinitely improbable acting only under blind and dead forces). Barrow [10, 11], Cornish and Levin [12] and Motter [13] have shown that the evolution of a 3-sphere closed universe into its final singularity is chaotic. Yorke *et al.* [14, 15] have shown that a chaotic physical system is likely to evolve into a measure zero state if and only if its control parameters are intelligently manipulated. Thus life (which near the final state, is really collectively intelligent computers) must be present all the way into the final singularity in order for the known laws of physics to be mutually consistent at all times. Misner [16, 17, 18] has shown in effect that event horizon elimination requires an infinite number of distinct manipulations, so an infinite amount of information must be processed between now and the final singularity. The amount of information stored at any time diverges to infinity as the Omega Point is approached, since the total entropy of the universe (i.e., *S*) diverges to infinity there, requiring divergence of the complexity of the system that must be understood to be controlled.

During life's expansion throughout the universe, baryon annihilation (via the inverse of electroweak baryogenesis using electroweak quantum tunneling, which is allowed in the Standard Model of particle physics, as baryon number minus lepton number [*B* - *L*] is conserved) is used for life's energy requirements and for rocket propulsion for interstellar travel. In the process, the annililation of baryons forces the Higgs field toward its absolute vacuum, thereby cancelling the positive cosmological constant and forcing the universe to collapse [7, 19, 20].

[1] S. W. Hawking, "Breakdown of predictability in gravitational collapse", *Physical Review D*, Vol. 14, No. 10 (Nov. 15, 1976), pp. 2460-2473.

[2] Stephen Hawking's paper which attempts to solve the black hole information issue without the universe collapsing is dependent on the conjectured string theory-based anti-de Sitter space/conformal field theory correspondence (AdS/CFT correspondence). That is, it's based upon empirically unconfirmed physics which violate the known laws of physics. See S. W. Hawking, "Information loss in black holes", *Physical Review D*, Vol. 72, No. 8 (Oct. 15, 2005), Art. No. 084013, 4 pp. Also at arXiv:hep-th/0507171, July 18, 2005, https://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0507171 .

[3] Robert M. Wald, *Quantum Field Theory in Curved Spacetime and Black Hole Thermodynamics* (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994), ISBN 0226870251, Section 7.3, pp. 182-185.

[4] John D. Barrow, Gregory J. Galloway and Frank J. Tipler, "The closed-universe recollapse conjecture", *Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society*, Vol. 223 (Dec. 15, 1986), pp. 835-844, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986MNRAS.223..835B .

[5] G. F. R. Ellis and D. H. Coule, "Life at the end of the universe?", *General Relativity and Gravitation*, Vol. 26, No. 7 (July 1994), pp. 731-739.

[6] Frank J. Tipler, *The Physics of Immortality: Modern Cosmology, God and the Resurrection of the Dead* (New York: Doubleday, 1994), ISBN 0198519494, Appendix C: "The Bekenstein Bound", pp. 410-411. Said Appendix is reproduced in Frank J. Tipler, "Genesis: How the Universe Began According to Standard Model Particle Physics", arXiv:astro-ph/0111520, Nov. 28, 2001, https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0111520 , Section 2: "Apparent Inconsistences in the Physical Laws in the Early Universe", Subsection a: "Bekenstein Bound Inconsistent with Second Law of Thermodynamics", p. 7.

[7] Frank J. Tipler, "Intelligent life in cosmology", *International Journal of Astrobiology*, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Apr. 2003), pp. 141-148, https://webcitation.org/6ZgOg8nug . Also at arXiv:0704.0058, Mar. 31, 2007, https://arxiv.org/abs/0704.0058 .

[8] S. W. Hawking and G. F. R. Ellis, *The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time* (London: Cambridge University Press, 1973), ISBN 0521200164, pp. 217-221.

[9] M. A. H. MacCallum, "Mixmaster Universe Problem", *Nature Physical Science*, Vol. 230, No. 13 (Mar. 29, 1971), pp. 112-113.

[10] John D. Barrow, "Chaotic behaviour in general relativity", *Physics Reports*, Vol. 85, No. 1 (May 1982), pp. 1-49.

[11] John D. Barrow and Janna Levin, "Chaos in the Einstein-Yang-Mills Equations", *Physical Review Letters*, Vol. 80, No. 4 (Jan. 26, 1998), pp. 656-659. Also at arXiv:gr-qc/9706065, June 20, 1997, https://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9706065 .

[12] Neil J. Cornish and Janna J. Levin, "Mixmaster universe: A chaotic Farey tale", *Physical Review D*, Vol. 55, No. 12 (June 15, 1997), pp. 7489-7510. Also at arXiv:gr-qc/9612066, Dec. 30, 1996, https://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9612066 .

[13] Adilson E. Motter, "Relativistic Chaos is Coordinate Invariant", *Physical Review Letters*, Vol. 91, No. 23 (Dec. 4, 2003), Art. No. 231101, 4 pp. Also at arXiv:gr-qc/0305020, May 5, 2003, https://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0305020 .

[14] Troy Shinbrot, Edward Ott, Celso Grebogi and James A. Yorke, "Using chaos to direct trajectories to targets", *Physical Review Letters*, Vol. 65, No. 26 (Dec. 24, 1990), pp. 3215-3218.

[15] Troy Shinbrot, William Ditto, Celso Grebogi, Edward Ott, Mark Spano and James A. Yorke, "Using the sensitive dependence of chaos (the 'butterfly effect') to direct trajectories in an experimental chaotic system", *Physical Review Letters*, Vol. 68, No. 19 (May 11, 1992), pp. 2863-2866.

[16] Charles W. Misner, "The Isotropy of the Universe", *Astrophysical Journal*, Vol. 151 (Feb. 1968), pp. 431-457, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1968ApJ...151..431M .

[17] Charles W. Misner, "Quantum Cosmology. I", *Physical Review*, Vol. 186, No. 5 (Oct. 25, 1969), pp. 1319-1327.

[18] Charles W. Misner, "Mixmaster Universe", *Physical Review Letters*, Vol. 22, No. 20 (May 19, 1969), pp. 1071-1074.

[19] F. J. Tipler, "The structure of the world from pure numbers", *Reports on Progress in Physics*, Vol. 68, No. 4 (Apr. 2005), pp. 897-964, https://web.archive.org/web/20180622171833/http://dauns01.math.tulane.edu/~tipler/theoryofeverything.pdf , Section 11: "Solution to the cosmological constant problem: the universe and life in the far future". Also released as "Feynman-Weinberg Quantum Gravity and the Extended Standard Model as a Theory of Everything", arXiv:0704.3276, Apr. 24, 2007, https://arxiv.org/abs/0704.3276 .

[20] Some have suggested that the universe's current acceleration of its expansion obviates the universe collapsing. But as the following paper demonstrates, there is no set of cosmological observations which can tell us whether the universe will expand forever or eventually collapse: Lawrence M. Krauss and Michael S. Turner, "Geometry and Destiny", *General Relativity and Gravitation*, Vol. 31, No. 10 (Oct. 1999), pp. 1453-1459. Also at arXiv:astro-ph/9904020, Apr. 1, 1999, https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9904020 . The reason for that is because that is dependant on the actions of sapient life in annihilating baryons.